Opioids drugs are substances of any form that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are primarily used for pain relief, severe pain, including anesthesia. there are other medical uses such as suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, suppressing cough, reversing opioid overdose as well as for executions in the United States. Extremely potent opioids such as “carfentanil” are only approved for veterinary uses. Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal.
What are prescription opioids?
Opioids drugs as mention above is a class of drugs naturally found in the opium poppy plant. Some prescription opioids are made from the plant directly, and others are chemically fabricated by scientists in labs using the same chemical structure. Opioids are often used as medicines because they contain chemicals that help the body in a relaxation process and can relieve pain. Prescription opioids are mostly used to treat moderate and severe pain, although some opioids can be used to treat coughing and diarrhea. Opioids can also make people feel very relaxed and to a certain extend, (high) – which is why they are sometimes used for non-medical reasons. This can be dangerous because opioids can be highly addictive, and overdoses and death are common, but drug users know that already Heroin is recorded as one of the world’s most dangerous opioids, and is never medically used in the United States.
Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found in the gastrointestinal tract, the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors mediate both the psychoactive and the somatic effects of opioids. Opioid drugs include partial or small agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol used for opioid-induced constipation, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier but can displace other opioids from binding to those receptors.
How do people misuse prescription opioids?
Prescription opioids drugs used for pain relief are safe when taken for a short time and as prescribed by a doctor, but they can be misused in certain ways. People misuse prescription opioids by:
taking the medicine in a way or dose other than the prescribed way,
taking someone else’s prescription medicine,
taking the medicine aiming to get high.
Sometimes people crush pills or open the capsules, dissolve the powder in water, and inject the liquid in their system through the vein meanwhile some snort the powder.
How do prescription opioids affect the brain?
Opioids bind to and activate opioid receptors on cells located in many areas such as the brain, spinal cord, and other organs in the body, especially those involved in feeling pain, and pleasure. When opioids are attached to these receptors, they act as barriers, blocking pain signals sent from the brain to the body and release large amounts of dopamine throughout the body. This release can strongly reinforce (addiction) the act of taking the drug, making the user want to repeat the experience.
What are common prescription opioids and their effects?
- hydrocodone, oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet)
- oxymorphone (Opana)
- morphine (Kadian, Avinza)
In the short term, opioids relieve pain and make people feel relaxed and happy. However, opioids, like any other class of drug can also have harmful effects, such as
- slowed breathing
What type of treatment can people get for addiction to prescription opioids?
A range of treatments including medicines and behavioral therapies are available and effective in helping people with opioid addiction.
Two medicines, “buprenorphine and methadone”, works by binding to the same opioid receptors in the brain as the opioid medicines, reduces cravings and withdrawal symptoms. Another medicine is naltrexone. It blocks opioid receptors and prevents opioid drugs from having an effect.
Behavioral therapies for addiction to prescription opioids, help people modify their attitudes and behaviors related to drug use, increase healthy life skills, and persist with other forms of treatment like medication. Some examples are cognitive behavioral therapy which helps modify the patient’s drug use expectations and behaviors and also effectively manages triggers alongside stress. Multidimensional family therapy is developed for adolescents with drug use problems, addresses a range of personal and family influences on one’s drug use patterns and is designed to improve overall functioning. These behavioral treatment approaches have proven effectiveness, especially when used along with medicines. learn more about drugs in our website nightcokesupplies.com